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[OOC] Nuclear Energy Development: Poja - Tier I - RD


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Here we are going to discuss the OOC details of the development of nuclear energy in the Konfederacija Poja.  Please note that this only concerns nuclear energy.  There are no plans - IC or OOC - for weapons development in the Konfederacija Poja unless something drastic changes in the geopolitical situation of Eurth that would create a direct, actionable, nuclear threat against the Konfederacija Poja.

So where do we go from here?  There is a link just below to a spreadsheet concerning my entire energy sector with unnecessary details.  It would be helpful to have it open in a tab while you read through this.  I encourage you to download it or copy to your own Google Drive so you can filter accordingly, it may help.  In a thread on our Discord (See "Pojacki Nuclear Energy Development" within #the-armoury and join it please if you want immediate discussion or just to ask for quick clarifications - aka ping me).

 

Nuclear Energy Development Handbook (Beta)

Poja Energy Worksheet (Sheets)

 

Timeline
This is a retroactive development (RD) with the first power station coming online in 1975 with two reactors.  I'll go into details below with reactor types and further information.  The reasoning for this development will be based on the need for future, sustainable, clean energy.  At this time, the majority of power in Poja will come from coal-fired power plants.  It would be well-known about the issues with coal-fired power plants at this time; after all, the Clean Air Act in the United States came about in the early 1960s.  Poja, for all of its "anti-leftism" has always had a strongly pro-environmental mindset, not to the point you see in Green parties around the wurld but certainly what you find in left-of-center parties.  So, with that simplification in mind, nuclear power becomes very attractive though it comes at a cost, literally it's expensive!  

To Poja, nuclear power - despite the high startup cost - provides long-term, high-output solutions with significant reductions in pollution.  You have to do something with the waste but there are solutions for that (will cover down below in more detail).  Nuclear energy is clean and despite the few incidents in the wurld very safe when managed properly.  I'm not looking to run a shoddy operation here.

From the development of this first power station in 1975 comes an expansion of the same power station in 1988 with two new reactors of a different and better type for more output and much safer operation.  This leads to a third station in 1996 with four of the same reactor type.  Standardization and commonality is important in an industry where you cannot make mistakes.  Beyond this, little changes until the 2020s, 2030s, and 2040s when newer reactors coming online that are available in our present day and age that not only provide significantly more output but are even safer.


Tier Selection
Poja is looking at Tier I: Commonplace Nuclear Reactors here with the Joint-Development Track.  I have no misconceptions on the sheer enormity of the nuclear industry and know that the Konfederacija Poja could, in no way feasible, develop nuclear energy on its own within the timeline required.  @Seylos has expressed a willingness to support development and if you are still willing then I am more than happy to have Seylosian development support.  If others want to support, please let me know in the Discord thread and/or this thread.  I say and/or because it needs to be here to be official.  I'll be more than pleased to iron out an international consortium of sorts so long as you follow Pojački domestic laws.


Power Stations
I'll be summarizing the spreadsheet here with the progression of each station, the reasoning for its placement, and why I went with how I went with each station.  These are details on the spreadsheet of course but the context is not there.  All capacity numbers will be megawatts thermal (MWth).

Vitance
Vitance in Liaria is the first power station to come online with two MAGNOX reactors in 1975, each with a capacity of 1,650 MWth.  This will be the first power station because it will have a significant water supply and will be positioned close enough to support the capital of Rugi but far enough that I don't have to evacuate Rugi if something happens - think Chernobyl distance to Kyiv and the general geography of the area around Chernobyl and that is Vitance.  

Now I am fully aware that MAGNOX reactors are dual-use but almost all Generation I reactors are so let's consider that aspect moot.  MAGNOX were chosen because by this point, they would be tried-and-true, which is a theme you will see repeat again.  They offer excellent output for the time and, most importantly, they were very simple and very safe in their design, more themes you will see repeat.  These two reactors will be decommissioned in 2020 after ~45 years of operation.

In 1988, Vitance gets two new reactors to become a four-reactor station.  These are CANDU 850 reactors with an output of 2,776 MWth, considerable more power than the MAGNOX.  The CANDU reactor is chosen because they are amongst the most commonly found reactors in this wurld.  There are 46 CANDU reactors and their derivatives built around the wurld.  They are safe and the sheer number of nations using them around the wurld is a testament to their reliability, affordability, and performance.  Like the MAGNOX, they can play a role in the development of nuclear weapons but that is insofar as their ability to produce tritium but this is not why I chose them specifically; however, I would sell tritium on a commercial scale.  If you have a watch that glows in the dark or night sights on a firearm, these use tritium.  It's also used in tools, instruments, and a few other innocent items.  I doubt the economic revenue from the sale of tritium would be significant but there's no sense not selling it for commercial purposes.

The CANDU reactors are set to be decommissioned in 2035, after which Vitance will be completely offline.  It will have been replaced by other stations and reactors of course.

Vitance would be entirely developed with joint support.

Berezino
Berezino in Chernarus is the second power generating station and it comes online in 1996 with four CANDU 850 reactors.  Berezino is along the Mediargic Sea and would provide enough power to support all of Chernarus by itself with ample reserves to supply Liaria and other regions in Poja.  Poja does have an interconnected grid in case anyone is wondering.  With now eight operational reactors, Poja's nuclear industry is providing almost 20% of the total power needs for the entire country.  Coal is down to 14% and gas is at 34%, summing up to two-thirds of Poja's power requirements.  The rest is made up of biomass, hydro, oil, and wind.  

It would be in the late 1990s that the Pojački government determines "offline dates" for coal-fired power plants, which is July 1, 2027.  Poja will - on this date - lose three coal-fired power plants with eight total units between them.  Nuclear and solar will be considered the "way of the future" in Poja but as we know, solar technology in the 1990s pales in comparison to what we see nowadays.

Berezino has a planned decommissioning date in 2044, which will mean all six CANDU 850 reactors will be officially offline at this time.

Berezino would be entirely developed with joint support.  Now we go into "the future" as in plants that are not currently online if we look at the calendar date but which are under construction and planned.

Žaradin
Žaradin is in Liaria near to where Vitance was.  Žaradin will be the first site of the Generation III+ nuclear reactor to go online in Poja, the ESBWR.  It's a long acronym!  Two reactors will come online in 2026 and two further in 2034, each providing 4,500 MWth, which is a significant boost over the CANDU 850 and nearly three times what the MAGNOX could do.

The ESBWR is a passively safe nuclear reactor and the "E" in it stands for economic.  It's economic insofar as nuclear reactors are concerned, please note.  Reactors were due to come online at two stations (see the link above) but have since been halted for whatever reason, none have been indicated insofar as I have seen.  The reactor doesn't appear to be the cause.  Nuclear politics is very wishy-washy, let's face it.

The keymost factor in the ESBWR is that if it loses all power, it remains completely safe for up to 72 hours without needing to do a thing.  That is significant.  Reliability, safety, commonality, it's going to play a role.  Passive safety is very important.

This plant would also be developed within the scope of joint support.  I would love for Poja to be the pioneering in Eurth for the ESBWR, unless others have claimed this.  I suspect no because this is an entirely new aspect for our RP.

Dalnica
Dalnica in Adjinua comes online after Žaradin with two reactors in 2029, two further in 2030, and two further in 2032.  This will have six reactors and be the largest power plant in Poja.  All will be ESBWR reactors and Dalnica essentially propels Poja deeply into the future because of a further development.  In the 2000s or 2010s, I have not decided, the Pojački government adds onto the end date of coal-fired power plants one for oil-fired power plants as well.  Remember, we're going for cleaner energy.  All oil-fired power plants must be offline by January 1, 2030.  Dalnica comes in in the nick of time but also by this point, solar energy will be a major player.

On January 1, 2030, the breakdown of power in Poja will be as such: Gas (38%), Nuclear (23%), Solar (16%), and biomass, hydro, and wind making up the rest.  Three-quarters of our power would be gas, nuclear, and solar.  Now you may be looking at gas and asking the question, "I thought Poja was going for clean energy, isn't gas very polluting?"  The answer is that it is but gas-fired power plants provide incredible amounts of power and without doubling my nuclear plans I cannot replace them like I can coal and oil.  That is the reality so they will remain around indefinitely but aim to get more efficient and cleaner on their emissions as time goes on, this is the reality of the wurld.  You also want a mixed energy grid so gas is here to stay.

I am on the fence with Dalnica.  I would like it to be developed largely by the Pojački industry domestically, especially with the technology being present from three prior plants but if that is not acceptable then it can remain jointly developed.

Novoaylovka
Novoaylovka in Chernarus is the last station in the works for development.  It will come online in 2042 with two reactors and 2043 with two reactors, replacing Berezino.  This will be a new type of reactor - for Poja - but a Generation III reactor, the APWR.  I've chosen this reactor for a few reasons.  For starters it is as powerful as the ESBWR with 4,451 MWth output but also because its ability to burn MOX fuel.  MOX, if you don't want to click the link, is fuel made from reprocessed and recycled nuclear materials.  The fissile material from decommissioned nuclear bombs can be made into MOX fuel.  I've positioned myself here for commercial success down the line.  Poja can be a place to safely and reliably dispose of decommissioned nuclear warheads, whether from countries that have had their nuclear weapons programs removed - by force or voluntarily - or by nations that have moved onto different designs.  There is nothing sinister at play here.  Poja will not be stealing nuclear components to make bombs secretly, no nation would ever consider using Poja in this capacity without incredible controls and transparency so, fear not.

How I go about this plant, whether domestically or with joint track is to be determined.


Phase Progression Plans
So what are my plans for each of the five phases?  Ideally this entire thing happens in a single thread so let's consider each phase as a "chapter" in this thread.  Now that you see all of the reactor stations and perhaps have had a chance to look at the spreadsheet you can see how much development has been put into the entire energy sector of Poja.  Please also keep in mind, I am positioning Poja to also sell power to its neighbors.  This does happen in real life, I assure you.  

Phase 1
The first phase required is that of a bilateral meeting.  I would like to roleplay this as a series of posts with those not only supporting the Pojački industry but also neighbors and other nations and here is why.  For those involved in the development, this is crucial that we iron out some key players, lay out timelines, and do the necessary writing to ensure that everything is official.  It'll be important for future references.  For my neighbors, obviously the development of nuclear energy on your border or in your neighborhood is going to attract attention.  Neighbors may have policy changes or concerned meetings wondering, "Is Poja going 'nuclear'?  What happens next?  Can I buy power?"  Nothing happens in a vacuum you would certainly be aware as none of this would be happening in secrecy.  We're not building bombs, we're building reactors.  You can't do the latter in a bunker inside of a mountain.  And beyond my neighbors, surely there are international reactions, headlines, policy changes, perhaps interest in helping or gaining support from Poja in the future on your own program?  Who knows, there are many possibilities.

Phase 2
Now we're talking about joint acquisitions and that is where we iron out the fissile material and where it comes from in the past and partly in the future.  For the past, it'll be important to sure up a strategic partner who is a stable government and not one that Poja would be overtly hostile to for any reason.  We can't have our power source be cut off and also it makes for better business obviously.  Given the joint development, there is considerable oversight so we can RP the allayment of fears that Poja is not secreting nuclear material to that secret bunker in the mountains.  For the future state, I have looked towards acquisition of material from Kori Chi.  Perhaps @Kori Chi could help provide historical fissile material to Poja for this project?

Phase 3
Here is where we get into the rolling meat of this.  We've ironed out the players, we've secured the materials, and now we have to develop the station and come up with a plan.  We need to establish the consortium and what everyone's roles will be in the consortium and, most important, reactor selection.  Why did you choose this one?  What controls are in place?  How is the industry being built?  I don't believe we need to do a considerable number of posts but this can eat up a good portion of bandwidth in the thread.

Phase 4
This is listed as "first prototype" and that means the station.  We're building it and there is more concrete than ever imagined being shipped throughout Poja.  Someone's got to ship the reactor components so we can build it and then there's the transport of nuclear materials.  Workers might be injured during construction - accidents happen - and policies have to be refined.  Budgets will likely overrun - when does a budget not overrun?  And so on and so forth until we get to…

Phase 5
Someone flips the switch and atoms generate heat that is contained in a way that turns your lights on, makes your radio play music, and powers that secret bunker in the mountains.  We probably just store bullets there don't be worried, I do mean this.  But alas, the station is online, the reactor is running, a second comes online, and we try not to get everyone too drunk that Karl falls asleep on the controls - looking at you Homer - and we almost have a meltdown.

Phase 6
"But Poja, there is no phase 6!"  Yes there is - in my eyes.  Phase 6 is what happens afterwards.  This is a retroactive development and this is 1975.  It's 2024.  That's fifty years of missing history.  Other plants come online, other reactors come online, future plans are set in the industry, et cetera, et cetera, et cetera.  There's more to cover from 1975 to 2024 in the nuclear energy development of Poja, let alone in the energy industry of Poja as a whole.  So I'd keep going with these developments as needed to fill in the gaps from 1975 to today.  Perhaps there are protests?  Perhaps whackjobs shoot RPGs at the reactor.  A lot can happen in fifty years.  What about accidents?  Things happen that don't necessarily lead to meltdowns.  Machinery fails, et cetera.  I do not have any plans to have meltdowns so do not worry, I'm not here to irradiate Argis.


What's Next?
For starters, @Seylos and @Kori Chi from above for the mentions.  I'd also like to tag the neighbors @Baltica, @Ahrana, @Garindina, @Leszczawka, @Kyznetsia, @Espalia, and I'm not sure how much further to go beyond this so if I didn't tag you, it isn't because I was trying to purposely exclude you, it's because I'm only looking at near to the region.

From there, let's discuss.  Concerns?  Requests?  Support?  Ideas?  Suggestions?  Bring them on please.  Ideally, I'd like to get this RP underway within the next 2 months if that's a fair expectation to everyone and those who developed this process.

Edited by Poja (see edit history)
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On 5/31/2024 at 8:04 PM, Poja said:

Poja is looking at Tier I: Commonplace Nuclear Reactors here with the Joint-Development Track.  I have no misconceptions on the sheer enormity of the nuclear industry and know that the Konfederacija Poja could, in no way feasible, develop nuclear energy on its own within the timeline required.  @Seylos has expressed a willingness to support development and if you are still willing then I am more than happy to have Seylosian development support.  If others want to support, please let me know in the Discord thread and/or this thread.  I say and/or because it needs to be here to be official.  I'll be more than pleased to iron out an international consortium of sorts so long as you follow Pojački domestic laws.

I absolutely would like to contribute to this project still.

Seylosian support would come in the form of financial and academic support along with co-development during construction. The 1970s through to the end of the 80s would be a time of rapid growth and development for Seylos and her power needs would be great. This goes without saying though that we would want a partnership and not simply funding Poja to build a reactor we later use.

Academic Support:

Much major academic support would come from the fine educators and researchers in Royal Academy Morenish (a public research university), located on the outskirts of Kirkwall, Alba, Seylos. Also present near the university is Morenish National Laboratory, a public research institution that receives grants from the Ministry of Education, Ministry of Science and Technology (MST), and the Ministry of Public Infrastructure and Utilities (MPIU). Over its many decades of existence, the Morenish Lab has been responsible for several breakthroughs that have contributed to everyday Seylosian life. In the present day its main focus is on enhancing Seylos's access to green energy technology, developing more advanced and easier to maintain public infrastructure, and helping to develop national scientific curriculum taught in the Seylosian education system.

However there are many academic institutions located around Seylos that have existed for many years. The University of Selbourne and University of Norfolk systems can be drawn upon for a variety of skilled academic professionals and researchers that have come from all over Eurth.

Financial Support:

Seylos's primary financial contributors to this venture will be from the MPIU, MST, and several private energy companies that are regulated under the Seylosian utility system. Primary funding from government agencies will be focused on hiring the requisite research personnel and funding initial tests either within Seylos or in Poja. Private contributions will mainly be focused on construction of reactors that can be moved towards commercial usage.

Political Support:

Seylos in general is considered a relatively risk free entity to do business and research with. However most nations know that Argis can be a rough and tumble place, and might need some reassurance nothing strange is going on. Seylosian support and direct involvement would ease any political pushback regarding trade and assure more cautious Seylosian military partners that Poja will not be lobbing nuclear weapons around anytime soon.

Military Support:

Like I said Argis can be a wild place. As Poja has described in the past, Poja is only a sneeze away from a civil war sometimes. Seylos will ensure agreements are in place to secure any Pojacki nuclear plants that might be exposed to any... extended civil unrest to prevent any catastrophe.

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Excellent let me see what we got here, we're going to be able to align on everything.

On 6/3/2024 at 11:31 PM, Seylos said:

Seylosian support would come in the form of financial and academic support along with co-development during construction. The 1970s through to the end of the 80s would be a time of rapid growth and development for Seylos and her power needs would be great. This goes without saying though that we would want a partnership and not simply funding Poja to build a reactor we later use.

I don't know why, but I love setting up consortiums.  I alluded to Confederacy Energy in the Kori Chi thread and I think that will be a great thing to expand upon here.  This is what I wrote.  So, Confederacy Energy can be the Pojački element into this consortium.  Given the level of support, I think Seylos' share could be significant.  For legal reasons, Confederacy Energy has to be at least 51% since no foreign entity can have a controlling stake in anything concerning Pojački infrastructure.  That being said, if Confederacy Energy were a straight 51% then I don't see why Seylos could be the other 49% or less if you wanted, and we had more partners.  There's also no reason this can't keep operating to this present day, and Seylos is still getting returns of some sort.  It goes without saying that the knowledge and what not gained here could translate into Pojački support for Seylosian programs and what not.  Worker exchanges, etc.

On 4/15/2024 at 6:00 AM, Poja said:

Our second company, Confederacy Energy, was founded in 1970 as a joint public-private venture to operate Poja's first nuclear power plant, the Vitance Energy Center.  In 1975, two reactors went online with significant foreign support.

 

On 6/3/2024 at 11:31 PM, Seylos said:

Academic Support:

Much major academic support would come from the fine educators and researchers in Royal Academy Morenish (a public research university), located on the outskirts of Kirkwall, Alba, Seylos. Also present near the university is Morenish National Laboratory, a public research institution that receives grants from the Ministry of Education, Ministry of Science and Technology (MST), and the Ministry of Public Infrastructure and Utilities (MPIU). Over its many decades of existence, the Morenish Lab has been responsible for several breakthroughs that have contributed to everyday Seylosian life. In the present day its main focus is on enhancing Seylos's access to green energy technology, developing more advanced and easier to maintain public infrastructure, and helping to develop national scientific curriculum taught in the Seylosian education system.

However there are many academic institutions located around Seylos that have existed for many years. The University of Selbourne and University of Norfolk systems can be drawn upon for a variety of skilled academic professionals and researchers that have come from all over Eurth.

You know, I never considered setting up a lab in Poja, but obviously I would be setting up a lab.  What if it is affiliated with these?  I'm thinking like Brookhaven-like.  

On 6/3/2024 at 11:31 PM, Seylos said:

Financial Support:

Seylos's primary financial contributors to this venture will be from the MPIU, MST, and several private energy companies that are regulated under the Seylosian utility system. Primary funding from government agencies will be focused on hiring the requisite research personnel and funding initial tests either within Seylos or in Poja. Private contributions will mainly be focused on construction of reactors that can be moved towards commercial usage.

Okay, this goes into the consortium, this is all entirely good with me.

On 6/3/2024 at 11:31 PM, Seylos said:

Political Support:

Seylos in general is considered a relatively risk free entity to do business and research with. However most nations know that Argis can be a rough and tumble place, and might need some reassurance nothing strange is going on. Seylosian support and direct involvement would ease any political pushback regarding trade and assure more cautious Seylosian military partners that Poja will not be lobbing nuclear weapons around anytime soon.

I joke OOCly in the Discord that Poja “sees itself as protecting the wurld from Argis” and while that is tongue-and-cheek there's quite a bit of truth to it.  The official stance of the government towards Argis is that it is a giant dumpster fire of instability, and Poja is very wary of partnerships throughout Argis with certain things.  In no way, shape, or forum would we get involved with any unstable nations with regard to any nuclear technology.  I really do not want are a reason to develop nuclear weapons, but if nations develop and then pose a threat to Poja I won't have a choice.  That being said, I would be problematic with RD on nuclear weapons just so someone could pose a threat to me.  That being said, a nuclear-armed Poja would be very hesitant to use them and consider them more for a deterrence to discourage someone from using them.  They're effectively worthless otherwise, and in RPs the only times they get used is by people with no concept (I n00k u post losses) of how that works.

On 6/3/2024 at 11:31 PM, Seylos said:

Military Support:

Like I said Argis can be a wild place. As Poja has described in the past, Poja is only a sneeze away from a civil war sometimes. Seylos will ensure agreements are in place to secure any Pojacki nuclear plants that might be exposed to any... extended civil unrest to prevent any catastrophe.

That's mostly me joking, tongue-and-cheek again.  Poja really isn't a sneeze away from a civil war.  Chernarus had it's happening from 68-74 and the constitution was amended afterwards to placate some of the needs of the regions and in 81 when Heraq sovereignty came up there was a referendum — you know like how civilized people do things — and they gained sovereignty.  That being said, regions do not have the unilateral right to secede.  The federal government is entirely entrusted in maintaining the confederacy.  We can obviously include something in the agreement — that's just good business, after all — but its odds of happening are very, very low.

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On 5/31/2024 at 11:04 PM, Poja said:

Phase 2
Now we're talking about joint acquisitions and that is where we iron out the fissile material and where it comes from in the past and partly in the future.  For the past, it'll be important to sure up a strategic partner who is a stable government and not one that Poja would be overtly hostile to for any reason.  We can't have our power source be cut off and also it makes for better business obviously.  Given the joint development, there is considerable oversight so we can RP the allayment of fears that Poja is not secreting nuclear material to that secret bunker in the mountains.  For the future state, I have looked towards acquisition of material from Kori Chi.  Perhaps @Kori Chi could help provide historical fissile material to Poja for this project?

@Kori Chi I saw you gave the thumb's up to the post but I just want to make sure it's OK with you if Poja is purchasing uranium from you historically for this.  If not, no biggie I will look elsewhere, I just want to iron out that piece because it'll be prett important.

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