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The Laws of the Sea


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The Laws of the Sea

(Link to the OOC discussion topic)

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:pic: Sunset City, 1959

The spirit of new beginnings had enveloped the Kingdom of the Sunset Sea Islands ever since the oppressive regime of Mat Troi Lan had been overthrown and the Thalassan War came to a definitive end. The young monarch, King Tomasso, was not one to idle around either. He knew that without hard work, the nation would always be known as an empire of brutes whose only goal was to enslave the whole continent for their own economic benefit. Naturally, the U-turn the nation performed both in its internal and external policy was quite a shock for the population, as many had known nothing but serving the Emperor and hate for other nations and cultures who supposedly prevented the nation from gaining valuable resources overseas. Now, the people of the Sunset Sea Islands were governed by a young King aided by foreign governors, taught to be xenophile and pacifistic people in reeducation centres and instead of declaring one war after another, their home nation worked hard to reconcile with its former enemies. Naturally, they noticed that since the youngest son of their former Emperor had claimed the throne as King, things started to turn for the better. Suddenly, their economy was prospering and their bowls were full of rice. Truly, this was the spirit of new beginnings.

This day, however, would be a new milestone on the road of the young Sunset Sea Islands to international reconciliation and approval. Sunset City had been chosen to be the place for an international conference for the first time. International representatives from all over the world travelled to the tropical island city to debate international sea law. This was an important step, not only for the international community, but for the Sunset Sea Islands as well. Maybe if the representatives saw the hard work the people of the nation did to join ranks with them as equals on a global stage, relations with more and more nations would improve and new ones developed.

On the harbour, a red carpet was rolled out for the foreign diplomats. At its end stood the young King Tomasso. Mind, he was not standing on the carpet, only at its end. The small gesture was proposed by the King himself to show how much he, and with him, the entire nation, welcomed the foreign emissaries and valued the newly founded international relations.

A new conference centre had been constructed in Sunset City to host the conference. Truly, this was not only a new beginning for the nation, but a historical event that would influence the way nations would interact from this point onwards. King Tomasso was sure that future generations would learn about these days in their history books.

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The socialist victory in Faramount's 1953 elections sparked a transformation of the national government, a tectonic shift that had fundamentally shaken Faramanian society. Yet while the socialists undertook many ambitious domestic programs, the change in governance was perhaps nowhere more visible than in the area of foreign affairs. Under the Fara regime, the Republic of Faramount had been little more than a quiet echo for @Limonaia, rarely involving itself in foreign affairs except to support its patron. But under the socialists, the republic had taken an outside role on the world stage, particularly in the area of the budding development of international law.

Indeed, Faramanian diplomats and academics had contributed a great deal to the development of the proposed Convention on the Law of the Sea, despite the country having little maritime interests itself. To some extent, this is why the Faramanians were able to make such contributions -- they were seen as a neutral, disinterested power, giving them some legitimacy. But mostly, it was simply their awe-inspiring commitment to the process. Where most nations had sent junior diplomats to the pre-negotiations, Faramount had dispatched an official of ambassador rank.

The Faramanians maintained this high-level commitment when it came to the conference, dispatching their foreign minister, Giordano Savio, to represent the republic. Savio arrived aboard the Tigre, an ageing coal-powered ship that would have been an embarrassment to most nations. But Faramount had acquired the vessel just five years prior from Limonaia, and considered it the pride of the nation's fleet. And admittedly, compared to the 1890s-era frigate it had replaced, the Tigre was a powerful weapon. But the honorable reception it received in harbor was the butt of many a joke amongst foreign sailors -- and indeed, amongst the Faramanian ship's crew, as they more than anyone knew that the ship was hardly a vessel worthy of foreign praise.

The king's decision to be standing off of the red carpet was thus particularly significant in Savio's mind as he approached the monarch. The Faramanian diplomat was clothed in the finest Limonaian threads, of course, wearing a luxurious brown three-piece suit that suited his tall, thin figure. But still, arriving on a thirty-year-old ship to represent a backwater country, Savio felt particularly touched by Tomasso's gesture. And as he walked across the red carpet to the king, Savio openly expressed that gratitude. "Your majesty, it is a great pleasure to be welcomed here, particularly by yourself. My people had not expected such an honor, and on behalf of my nation and its government, I thank you dearly."

One of Savio's aides stepped up, bearing a box. The foreign minister took it, and turned to the king, opening it. "Your majesty, we bring you a gift to show our gratitude for your hosting this conference, and for your most respectful welcome. This bronze artefact from the ninth century was once a...good luck charm of sorts...that would have been placed on a fishing vessel of the Fara people, our dominant ethnic group. We present it to you out of recognition of your nation's maritime history, and out of recognition for the role your government has placed in producing this treaty. We hope it can be a foundation of a continued friendship between our nations as we negotiate this new law of the sea."

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The Mauridivian delegation was angry. Very angry.

After the traumatic experience that was the Thalassan War, a conflict which had scarred an entire generation of Mauridivians, they were appalled to hear that the Sunset Sea Islands would be hosting such an important international convention. The Mauridivian government had actually considered boycotting the convention altogether; after all, it's not like they'd be missed. However, the liberals within the government had convinced King Richard II to send a small delegation to represent mauridivian interests at the conference. After all, international maritime law is important, and all that.

The king had not actually sent a liberal delegation though, he had sent a considerate one. Considerate in this case just means "veterans who are also racists", so when they were told that they were going to the Sunset Sea Islands to negotiate an important international treaty, they nearly exploded with rage. That rage was nothing new; it had filled these men in one way or another ever since the War, but now it had really come out in force.

As their relatively small ship approached the harbor of Sunset City, Tomas Gonzalez, the leader of the delegation, tried to keep his composure and ordered his subordinates to do the same.

"Why should we act all fancy for these salaos*?" whined Solomon Tuvor, the main secretary.

"We're showing them some kindness. If we just walked in as if we owned the place, although I agree that we rightfully should, these pescaos* would probably riot like there was no tomorrow. We're saving them from having to waste time thinking about how inferior they are to true-blooded Alharuns." replied Gonzalez.

"Well spoken, boss," said one of the aides. The rest of the delegation quickly nodded in agreement.

"Besides, there will be people actually worth the air they breathe here, and as you may recall, not all of our brothers-in-arms think in the same way we do," added Gonzalez.

"Never doubted it. If we all thought the correct way, the king would be properly empowered, instead of a liberal sock puppet!' shouted Tuvor. The delegation exploded into laughter, and the rest of the way to the dock they talked to each other in mocking voices, moving their hands and pretending that they were the evil liberals control the righteous monarchy.

Finally, the ship came to a stop, and the delegation began to dismount unto the red carpet. Several boys carried the men's papers as they walked towards the Sunset Sea Islandian monarch, who was standing off the red carpet as some sort of gesture, but that went completely unnoticed. Gonzalez approached the king and extended his hand for a handshake while presenting himself.

"We are the delegation from the SerenĂ­simo Reino de Mauridiviah. We hope that this conference will not be disappointing."

After Gonzalez, each of the men in the delegation shook the kind king's hand with ever-increasing levels of cold stares. So far they had managed to keep everything together, and they hoped that it would last.

 

*these are racial slurs used to refer to Sunset Sea Islanders.

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  • 1 month later...

The Thalassan War (1941-1947) had really shaken up things on the eastern side of the Oriental Ocean. What started out as a local conflict soon erupted to involve the whole of Thalassa and nearby Alharu, Argis and Aurelia. At was 17 years ago since that overseas conflict had ended. But the repercussions could still be felt today: distrust and competition. This effect had negative consequences for business. The government of Orioni much prefer the opposite to be true: more cooperation and trade. With that in mind, they had accepted the invitation of King Tomasso I. 


Bridge of the cruiser HMS Anibesa
Sunset Sea

One hour later than expected the cruiser HMS Anibesa appeared on the eastern horizon. The ship was steaming towards Sunset City at full speed. Captain Hiram Feibad (1904-1971) was well aware of the extended strain on the ship's engines. The cruiser was getting old and in need of regular repair and upkeep. An unexpected problem had forced them to stop at the port of Burkini for 2 days. While underway a leak had sprung below the waterline near the starboard propeller. That sort of random accident was all too common near the Burkini Triangle. The onboard pumps had difficulty keeping up with pumping the water out again. And the ship's speed was also negatively affected.

One benefit of stopping in Burkini was the existing infrastructure of the Orioni navy. Even though officially the Burkinese had gained their independence in 1955, there was still an influential military presence from Orioni in the form of a naval base. With the help of this extra manpower, the crew toiled away both day and night to repair the leaks.

This earlier delay was why the Anibesa was now sailing onward at full speed. The engines were being stressed to their limits. Captain Feibad had already radioed ahead that they were running behind schedule and also making good time to catch up. While the @Sunset Sea Islands were a vast archipelago of islands, the technology they possessed proved to be quite a capable communications system. This impressed the Orinese delegation when they heard of it.

The answer arrived quickly, confirming in that one hour delay wasn't too much of an issue.


Cabin of the political officer
HMS Anibesa

Two women were having a discussion. The younger woman was standing while the elder woman sat behind a small foldable wooden desk. The room smelled of lemon iced tea, which the older woman had was sipping. Mrs Biru Menkir (1904-1974) was a veteran of Oriental politics. Her previous posts included several years in both Andalla and the Sunset Sea Islands. Her conservative view didn't fit well with her counterpart.

"No, I see no reason at all why we should involve the captain," said Mrs Biru Menkir, the senior political officer of this Orioni delegation, "Because the captain is only here to serve us and not involve himself with public policy."

"But Imama (Oharic: Madam), I only wanted to hear his opinion about..." protested Ms Azmera Dawit (1925-97), the junior diplomatic officer and her counterpart for the duration of this mission. Azmera had been chosen because of her academic performance and theoretical knowledge about international trade. But she still had much to learn with regards to diplomacy and negotiations.

"No, Azmera," answered Biru Menkir decisively, before continuing: "You are young and still have to learn that we don't need the opinion of these men. The Orioni Empire has always done fine with women steering the ship of state, while men steer the ships of war. Today will be no different."

"But the captain," Azmera Dawit tried one last time.

"The captain has his order, and we have ours," snapped Biru Menkir, "And those orders are clear: first and above all to maintain the influence of Orioni in Talisa (Oharic: Thalassa) and wherever possible expand it across the Oriental Ocean. We must maintain control of what goes in and out of Europa. Is that understood?"

"Yes Imama, all is perfectly clear now, thank you" replied Azmera Dawit. She turned around, stepped out of the cabin onto the deck, and closed the door behind her.


A little while later
Harbour of Sunset city

The Sunset Sea Islandians had put on quite the show to welcome their foreign guests. There was a red carpet. And a lot of people. In the background, a marching band stood at the ready, their brass instrument reflecting the afternoon sunlight.

The Anibesa docked and sailers placed the moveable gangplank. Mrs Biru Menkir was first to disembark. She wore a green-and-blue sarong, the traditional colours of her northern region of Semeni in Almintaka. Ms Azmera Dawit followed closely behind, in an equally colourful red sarong. At the same time, the marching band began to play the national anthem of Orioni.

Biru Menkir stepped forward to greet the king.

"Selamati King Tomasso. The Empress Owa, pearl of all people, extends her well wishes to you and the good people of Siraki Adega (Oharic: Sunset Sea Islands)."

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Købmanshavn Palace, Arkhavn
18 March 1959

2-Roxas-Room-768x512.jpg

"Tull! Helt tull!" (Nonsense! Complete nonsense!)

Somebody was clearly unamused by the letter of invitation sent by the @Sunset Sea Islands to their supposedly important international convention.

That "somebody" was Allan Svendsen, the Andallan Minister of Defense, who was among those called to an impromptu Cabinet meeting to discuss Andalla's response to the letter.

"Sir, please," hushed Torsten Degn, his secretary.

"It's alright, Mr. Degn," interrupted President Rohde. "I knew this invitation would solicit some, rather... violent reactions, especially considering what happened a decade ago. But this invitation concerns maritime law – international maritime law. And the blue in our flag isn't blue for no reason: Our economy, our nation, it thrives on the sea. With or without this agreement, all our hopes will rest on the sea. So it would be the wiser choice to accept this invitation, lest we face economic trouble later on. We must do something."

"Right, we can boycott it," Svendsen retorted. A few heads nodded in agreement.

Rolf Lassen, the Minister of Trade and Industry, glared at Svendsen. "Mr. Svendsen. We simply cannot miss this agreement. Whether or not you'll like it, this conference will surely have a lasting impact on maritime trade for decades to come. And we're talking international level here. Mr. President, have you not heard? The Orinese have already confirmed their attendance. If we want to continue crossing that ocean for any more reason than breaking useless records," Lassen pointed to a small painting on the wall, depicting a great 18th-century Andallan vessel braving the mighty waves of the Oriental Ocean. "... then we might as well do something, or forever regret our decision."

President Rohde nodded at Lassen, then looked at everybody else. "Mr. Lassen is right. Our sources have confirmed Orioni, and potentially other important trade partners, will be sending a delegate to the event. If we decline the invitation, imagine the possibilities. The Sunset Sea Islands is very smart and cunning, like their predecessor. By reaching an agreement with critical Andallan trade partners, they might as well turn them all against us, one way or another."

"Well then, if we must attend, then we shall send only a small delegation," Svendsen insisted. "Only one that's large enough to function at the bare minimum."

"But, Mr. Svendsen, will that not make us look like the losers?" objected Lassen. "Showing little interest in this key agreement will only paint us as the ones who do not care to stand up against our enemies."

"... Mr. Svendsen, do you not consider that every delegation attending this meeting has surely heard of the events that have taken place years ago, the events that have rocked Thalassa? I'm sure they also know we were the ones that fought the hardest to destroy it. We were the force of good. And they're expecting us to show that in the meeting. That is, if we even choose to attend."

The President nodded again. "Well-said, Mr. Lassen."

Twelve years after the war ended, in an era of economic progress and rapid technological advancement, there were still many, many, many people who harbored memories of the great atrocities committed by the Empire of Mat Troi Lan. It was almost a given, that anything pertaining to the new government would be met with much contempt by Andallans, @Mauridiviahns, Flautons, and even Gioktons. If some wars were fought to end prejudice and unfair treatment, the Thalassan War only created more of it. Mat Troi Lan only created more of it.


"Mr. President, a destroyer is not enough. We must send the Kalvtinden!" suggested Minister Lassen.

Admiral Magne Asheim was quick to respond. "Mr. Lassen, I must inform you that as of the moment the Kalvtinden is undergoing her annual maintenance repairs in Brumundvik. And besides, she is already in a poor condition. We are looking to scrap her soon."

The last remaining ship of her class, the AMS Kalvtinden witnessed the tragic sinkings of her sisters the Styggetinden and the renowned Gravfjelle. Once the pride of the Andallan fleet during her launch in 1941, she now sat as a rusting 18-year-old relic of the past.

"The Vesthavet is far too large to be practical," Asheim added. "It would make for a spectacular arrival, but the logistical issues outweigh the benefits."

The AMS Vesthavet was the Navy's first aircraft carrier. She was brand-new, having served for a mere three months; she was the pride of the Andallan fleet. Older sailors did not welcome the idea of a floating, moving airbase, for Andalla had already many small airstrips everywhere. The Vesthavet herself was plagued with many operational problems which were hastily being fixed one by one, but for the time being, she symbolized nothing but the Andallan people's strength and perseverance.

Svendsen was growing impatient. He had had enough of these boys talking about all their little toys and which they might play with today.

"Send the jet."

"Mr. Svendsen, excuse me?" Asheim remarked, stunned.

"I said, send the jet."

"Mr. Svendsen, this is a maritime agreement..."

"It's the only way we can showcase our strength and superiority at the event. Since you and Mr. Lassen already crossed out the Kalvtinden and the Vesthavet as possibilities."

"Mr. Svendsen, I—"

"Very well," the President interrupted. "Mr. Svendsen, I'm appointing you in charge of communicating with Skandinavisk regarding the jet. Admiral Asheim, if you see any possibility within our fleet, or if you can find a way to get one of the two ships you discussed, very well. Both of you shall report to me by this time next week, along with everyone else in this room. Thank you all for your time."

The President got up, shook hands with everybody, and left the room.

Part 2 to continue...

Edited by Andalla (see edit history)
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The year 1959 was a trying one for the Worker's Republic; not only was it a bad year for the corn harvest, but Jian Bozaan, the legendary Big Sword himself, was in ill health, and widely (if very, very quietly) rumored to be dying. He'd awarded his right-hand woman, Lin Baishan, the title of Interim General Secretary, in the hopes that his illness would take a turn for the better, but the cancer would kill him only a few months later, in 1960. It was a time of great uncertainty for Fulgistan, a country only beginning to consider emerging from the purges and bloodshed that had followed the revolution for over twenty years. At the head of this tentative progressive movement was the young and controversial Ismail Tunyaz, one of the few senior Party officials born after the revolution. He was, at present, only Secretary for Foreign Diplomacy, but this meant that he had a unique and, perhaps, perilous opportunity to shape Fulgistan's foreign policy and international relations in the waning years of the Bozaan period.

The Fulgistani delegation had flown in from Bogd Gioro on an aging @Andallan Skandinavinsk SK-2, making stopovers in Faramount, Mauridiviah and Andalla itself before finally arriving, days later, in Sunset City. Fulgistan had taken no part in the Thalassan War proper, but as others were, the Worker's Republic was wary of the Sunset Sea Islanders, only recently haven shaken off the yoke of fascism, only to replace it with the barely-improved monarchy. Tunyaz had brought with him several agents of the Bureau of the Interior, the feared "Saker" secret police; the Revolutionary Guard was notoriously undisciplined, and thus unsuitable for diplomatic engagements. The Sakers had deigned to carry their pistols with them on this occasion, but all members of the delegation wore the military-style garb that was the de facto uniform of the CPF at the time.

The delegation approached King Tomasso after the Orinese, giving a curt bow and a cursory greeting. Warmer salutations were reserved for the delegation of @Faramount, a brother in the socialist struggle. Relations had been growing ever closer since the Southern Alharun nation's 1953 revolution, and Tunyaz was eager to secure a friend and ally in a fellow victim of colonialism. Satisfied with their position in the room, nearby the Faramontese, the Fulgistanis stepped aside and awaited further arrivals.

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  • 2 weeks later...

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King Tomasso was hopeful. He had spent all day shaking the hands with friend and former enemy alike or at least exchanged some sort of civilised formality with them. Former enemies were only friends that didn't know about their bonds of friendship yet. Whether the faces that Tomasso greeted were smiling or stern and distrusting, one thing was for sure: the world was willing to give his nation a chance. A couple of years ago it would have been impossible to even imagine foreign flags to be on full mast, foreign ships lining the harbours of the capital and foreign anthems being played by the royal orchestra. Yes, this was a chance, and Tomasso would do anything he could to take it and to change his nation for the better.

Many merchants, both domestic and from afar, had opened up little booths on the ports, presenting their goods and telling tales of their nations to the interested public. Some even showed Sunset Sea Islandian citizens around on their vessels. Tomasso saw children of all colours running around the ports, playing together in peace and harmony. "Those kids will be the rulers of the future,"  Tomasso thought. "It might take some time for them to make friends with everybody, but I'm sure, they will."

And whilst more and more curious visitors wandered from ship to ship to learn about the wondrous places they came from, King Tomasso headed for the conference centre. The Laws of the Sea were about to be written.

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  • 3 weeks later...

Continued...

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"So, Captain, how's she doing?"

"Pretty well, Minister. Not a single incident in over a hundred hours of flight time."

"That's... amazing. And she's only the third prototype?"

"Correct, Minister, the third and newest fully-functional model ever built."

The young SK-3 dashed across the Sea of Andalla at 38,000 feet. An engineer in his thirties sat at his post monitoring the aircraft's performance amid a myriad of gauges and switches. Two other engineers recorded outside conditions and tinkered around with several large vats of water. The flight engineer was glued to the dials, noting all significant information and keeping an eye on the flight systems. It was just another routine run, busy as ever, to check the progress of the SK-3's flight test and certification program.

The cabin was separated by a single row of dividers and a door. The rear cabin had a completely different mission — it housed the Andallan delegation for the conference, led by Foreign Minister Bjarke Albinsen. Though somewhat hastily prepared, the rear cabin was a flying palace — designed to barely accommodate the entire delegation on the ground at Sunset City, in the almost-likely event that the hosts would be less than friendly to the delegates. The cabin was complete with a small table and eight more wooden chairs, to serve as a rudimentary meeting room if needed. Sleeping bags were stuffed up into a small closet, the closest thing the cabin had to a bed aside from the chairs themselves. The Andallans came prepared; they would not fall for any foolish trap set by the fledgling new government.

Though initially hesitant to use a test aircraft, Skandinavisk agreed to coordinate a "test flight" to Sunset City to serve the purpose. Even in 1959 the Andallans looked at their western neighbors with a slight degree of hostility; Skandinavisk allowed the delegation to travel free save for the furniture, which was simply moved in from a stockroom in the Foreign Ministry.

Bjarke Albinsen observed the different cockpit instruments aboard the SK-3. For many of the delegation members, himself included, it was their first time flying on a jet. But Albinsen was sort of familiar with the Skandinavisk cockpit; he had often been invited to the flight deck while flying on the government-owned SK-1 and SK-2 fleet. One always had this certain indescribable feeling of pride when setting foot into a Skandinavisk cockpit for the first time, and it often followed each time one would once again enter the small hallowed room. Albinsen could easily tell that the pilots were loving each moment of the flight; any Andallan pilot would. But today they were happier than usual. Today they were putting the Sunset Sea Islands to shame with an aircraft unparalleled to whatever their Sunset Sea Islandian rivals would be introducing soon.

Albinsen never liked the idea of hostility. He could never understand why Andalla couldn't simply forgive the Sunset Sea Islands. Even Giokto and Andalla got along well these days, not because their fates had been decided but because two long-time neighbors had finally been reconciled. Hundreds of years of constant fighting between Andalla and Giokto, even between Giokto and itself, had ended with uniting under a single banner. And the Sunset Sea Islands did what? A surprise attack and some ancient unfriendly natives. Albinsen could really do nothing but roll his eyes and frustrate himself with the sheer hardheaded mindset of the Andallans.

But, luckily enough, there had arisen another chance at achieving true regional unity. One that would, perhaps, come with the added benefit of securing more relations across the globe. It was a time for peace, a time for cooperation, a time for one united force working for a common cause.

Nobody knew that. Albinsen did. Soon everybody else would, too.

Edited by Andalla (see edit history)
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  • 5 months later...

Giordano Savio applauded respectfully after Seto's address, and again after Ninson speech. Once the two had finished, and no one else had indicated any desire to speak, he signaled to be recognized. 

"I join with my esteemed colleagues in hoping that today, we can establish a baseline for peace and prosperity in the world's oceans and waterways. Over the last few months, legal experts from a number of nations have come together, developing the proposal that I will now detail. During this process, my delegation has become somewhat of a neutral broker, due to our lack of direct interest here. With this in mind, I think I am the perfect person to present the proposal."

"The International Maritime Convention grants wide powers to coastal states, significantly expanding on what has historically been allowed. A coastal state will of course have complete control over its inland waters, but it will now also have near-complete sovereignty over a period extending twelve nautical miles from its coastline. What's more, a coastal state will have control of all natural resource exploitation occurring within 200 nautical miles of its coastline -- or, if there is an extensive continental shelf, to the end of that continental shelf or to 350 nautical miles from its coastline, whichever is shorter. Certain special provisions have been made to ensure the power of archipelagoes states over their internal waters as well."

"Yet the convention also grants significant privileges to the maritime powers, specifically in the form of the right to innocent passage. This right will allow any ship -- merchant, warship, or submarine -- to travel through any nation's territorial waters, subject only to safety and environmental regulates that a coastal state must apply equally to foreign and domestic vessels. Now, there will be limitations on what innocently passing ships can do. A submarine must be surfaced; a warship cannot engage in any military activity; and generally, a ship must pass as expeditiously as reasonably possible. And a ship can prohibit certain types of vessels from traveling through its waters including nuclear-powered vessels. But by and large, we will have created a substantial right for merchants to go anywhere in the world."

"We've also created some general international rules to promote the universal good. Piracy and unauthorized broadcasting are banned, and states are authorized to enforce those bans. We have also included optional protocols banning the slave trade and narcotics trade, for those nations who wish to allow their ships to be policed on these bases. There is also a mandate that any ship help another ship in distress. And there are a number of environmental regulations, aimed at ensuring that no party to the treaty severely pollutes the environment."

"We've finally proposed a framework for further development of international maritime law and the law of the sea. An International Maritime Organization is formed, which can propose model maritime regulations, propose new maritime treaties, or amend this treaty. And an International Maritime Court is created to adjudicate disputes regarding the convention. These two bodies should foster substantial cooperation in these areas."

"With the proposal laid out, I do believe now would be the time to begin substantive negotiations."

As Savio spoke, his aides distributed the initial proposals of the International Maritime Convention, Optional Protocol Banning the Slave Trade, Optional Protocol Banning the Narcotics Trade, Statute of the International Maritime Organization, and Statute of the International Maritime Court.

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