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    • By Karillia
      The Grand Duchy of Karillia

       
      Capital: Trebzon
      Government: Constitutional Monarchy
      Grand Duke: Aleksandar I Komnenos
      Religion: Secular
      Population: TBD
      Currency: Imperial Mark
      GDP: TBD
       
      Etymology: 
      Karillia literally means 'The Chosen' in the ancient language of Aegean, an almost dead language with an estimated 10.000 remaining speakers. The first recorded usage of the name originates from the Aegean mythology, where a prophecy tells of the everlasting land of Karillia, which will unite the world (which was believed to be much smaller back then) and bring prosperity to it.
      Brief History:
      The first settlements in this area can be traced back for millennia, to the native Aegean people, which revered a pantheon of gods and had their own mythology which was heavily influenced by other migrating tribes and natural disasters of the time. They only had loose, tribal governments until the Empire of Fles integrated these settlements.
      They displayed very tolerant and benevolent rule, making the Aegean people fiercely loyal towards the Emperor. Although they actively converted the populace to their own religion, Flesian, they also permitted the retention of their old faith. In the early 13th century, national unrests boiled to an all-time high, resulting in a pretender dethroning the Komnenos emperor before being dethroned himself only a few years later.
      The survivors of the Komnenos dynasty fled into the Aegean lands where they were still viewed as the legitimate rulers, creating the splinter state of Karillia. They used the mythological name in the hopes of enhancing morale and reclaiming their lost crown, yet they ultimately failed, only being able to make small territorial gains before the arrival of the Osjuk Empire.
      The Osjuks were a foreign nation from beyond the Poltic mountain range with far superior military, boosting one of the strongest light cavalries of the time. They slowly annexed the area of the Fles, taking their capital and last stronghold in 1453. Although they initially accepted a yearly tribute in exchange for Karillia’s continued existence, the Osjuks broke their promise in 1461 when they forcefully conquered it.
      This lead to the Aegean people rejecting their rule and staging multiple violent uprisings, which was countered by the Osjuks building new settlements in the area of Karillia, which they renamed to Trebzon, and sending loyal subjects to live there. They managed to hold their lands for almost five centuries, when countless uprisings all across their Empire as well as foreign interventions crippled them until they completely fell apart in 1918. Only two days after this, the presidential republic of Greater Trebzon was proclaimed.
      The young state struggled with a devastated industry as well as a financial crisis, resulting in thousands of deaths from starvation, which the president managed to blame on the tardiness of the parliament. in 1936, he dissolved the parliament and turned himself into a dictator. When the economy still didn’t recover, he found a new victim: the remaining Osjuk populace. In the following years, racial tensions heightened, and many Osjuk businesses and homes were raided and appropriated. Due to the extra money this brought into the treasury, the economy boomed, giving rise to an international anti-Osjukism.
      The tensions boiled over when a large, regional war erupted between the Osjuk successor states and foreign powers joined it, leaving millions dead by its end in 1948. The foreign powers helped build a proper republic this time, enforcing a constitution that would prevent anything like this from ever happening again and creating the Republic of Trebzon.
      This new government received a lot of foreign funding in the beginning, permitting it to rebuild the destroyed industry and create a strong economy. The people were rather happy with this until the early 2000s, which saw a number of corruption scandals and a rapidly deteriorating economy, creating calls for reform.
      By 2007, the government made lots of promises, yet implemented none of them, resulting in a Coup d’état by the military under the leadership of Supreme General Aleksandar Komnenos, last living member of the old imperial lineage. After grabbing power, he proclaimed the Grand Duchy of Karillia, with the clear ambition of restoring the Empire of his ancestors and succeed where the Empire of Karillia failed.
      Government:
      Head of State: Aleksandar I Komnenos. He has almost absolute power and is working towards tweaking the constitution in a way that fits him.
      Head of Government: Chancellor Palagelios. While he theoretically holds a lot of power, he bows to the Grand Duke, resulting in him often being considered a puppet.
      There are three main departments of the government:
      The ministry of Safety, responsible for military decisions and the executive authority.
      The ministry of Prosperity, responsible for economic decisions and the legislative authority.
      The ministry of the People, responsible for welfare and funding decisions and the judical authority.
      While there is technically a seperation of powers, since the accords of 2009, the Grand Duke has authority over them in case of a crisis - which he may proclaim himself.
      There is a parliament consisting of 77 seats.
      There are 38 civilian representatives which are elected in bi-annual elections and are tasked with representing the will of the people.
      There are 38 corporate representatives which are elected by the corporate summit, in which the  200 biggest corporations convene to discuss further improvements and resolve conflicts.
      There is 1 independent tidebreaker, ensuring that there is always a majority. He is often accused of favouring corporate interests.
      This strange corporate parliament is highly controversial in other countries and is often denounced by liberals.
      Military
      Karillia maintains a constand standing army of 0.5% of its population as well as a further 0.6% of its population as reserve.
      Their constant propaganda and offensive rhetoric has lead to them having a rather strong military. It heavily relies on a cpable airforce consisting to a large part out of drones, as the generals are dedicated followers of the 'awe-and-shock' warfare. The second largest part of the army is the armoured division with thousands of light tanks and a few hundred heavy tanks. The rest of the personnel is working as infantry and engineers.
      Economy
      Karillia heavily relies on its heavy industry as well as weapon exports, yet a lot of smaller companies recently started gaining influence thanks to government funding. It is internationally criticized for selling arms to terrorists and outlawed organisations, yet there is no definitive proof of this, which is why they are yet to be subject to any form of embargo or sanction. 
      Demographics
      Most people are of a mixed ethnicy resulting from the immigrating Fles mixing with the local Aegeans, yet there are still some small villages of pure Aegean or pure Fles descent. There is also still a considerable minority of Osjuks which settled here during the rule of the Osjuk Empire, yet most of them fled during the time of Greater Trebizond.
      Culture
      Due to the many occupations and conflicts that the people of Karillia were subject to, they are a very hardy people with a strong sense of unity. They are hard-working and are sceptical of liberal governments due to the economic hardships those brought over them, which permitted the Grand Duke to create his near absolute regime. They also naturally need a national idol, which was once fulfilled by the Fles emperors, and is currently being catered to by Aleksandar I.
    • By Limonaia
      Flag and coat of arms of Limonaia
       
      The Grand Duchy of Limonaia
      Il Granducato di Limonaia (Limonaian)
      Etymology
      The name Limonaia is widely believed to have come from the local word for lemons, as the region itself has been known for it's production of lemons for a long time, the country calls itself the "Land of the Lemons" and this is likely where the name it self comes from.
      Geography
      Limonaia is a somewhat small country in northern Alharu with a long rugged coastline, followed by gentle hills as well as mountains towards the east. In the northern region of the country the Autonomous region of Boevendal is located, which is directly north of the capital Limone. The nation also posseses the small island of Anaca off the coastline in the Ygros sea.
      History
      The beggining of modern Limonaia comes in the form of various citystates on the coast of modern day Limone. These states eventually expanded into the mountains and hills in the surrounding area. Some of these states would expand and become merchant republics with colonies across the seas, while other states grew rich of production of various materials. Eventually the citystates either grew too big or were conquered by neighbouring states thus ending the era of republics, but they did leave a lasting impact on the nation. Most cities were massive production centres in things such as glass, furniture textiles and other wares, which can be reflected in the modern day industrial capacity of the nation.
      In place of these republics multiple counties and duchies were established who then united in the year of 1694 forming the Grand Duchy of Limonaia for the first time. In the following years recolonisation of previously held territories both accross the seas and expantion into neighbouring lands followed. Eventually proclaiming the Kingdom of Limonaia which would last from 1745 to 1902 when it was abolished in favour of the old "Grand Duchy" following a civil war were much of its colonies and "extra" land was lost to it's neigbours.
      In the period between 1902 to 1952 Limonaia went through major political reforms where a parliament and other institutions were established pushing the country away from absolutism resulting in the Limonaian constitution being adopted in 1912. However in 1952 the military took power in a coup d'etat establishing a military dictatorship under General Luca di Ortello until his death in 1976 where Vittorio Emanuelle VI was restored as monarch, however with absolute power unlike before the dictatorship. This has however been gradually changed with parliament being reopened in 1993 and the Grand Duke gradually giving the parliement more power. Recently unrest because of this has increased tenfold.
      Government
      The Grand duchy of Limonaia is currently a Unitary Parliamentary Semi-Constitutional Monarchy with its current monarch being Grand Duke Vittorio Emanuelle VI. The current Prime Minister of Limonaia is Antonio Guiverdi who assumed office in september 2017 following a controversial refusal by the Grand Duke to accept a liberal victory in the elections, forcing the Liberals to enter a coalition with the Centre-Right party. The parliament of Limonaia has one chamber with 345 seats and has sessions in the capital of Limone. The country has parliamentary elections every four years, as well as separate local elections.
      Military
      The armed forces of Limonaia has personnel of around 420,000. The pride of Limonaia is its navy of one aircraft carrier, the ND Palo, twelve frigates, three corvettes, one destroyer and five submarines. The Limonaian army is modern and incorporates roughly 150,000 active personnel. Its equipment ranges from APCs to tanks and SPGs.
      Economy
      Limonaia is a heavily industrialized nation with a mixed economy. Some of the largest sectors are the automotive industry, fashion, glass, wine, olives and Lemons. Tourism also contributes to a large portion of jobs and wealth within the country. The country has historically had problems with infrastructure due to its uneven terrain, but has thanks to modern investments established a large railway system, including high speed trains between the largest cities in the country, a project that was finished in spring 2007.
      Society
      The country has around 48 million inhabitants in which a majority of 89% are ethnic Limonaians. There is a sizable minority people of Variot origin in Boevendal who are the majority of the population in this province. Most of the population speak Limonaian as their first language, around 93% with Variot being the second most spoken language with about 3% of the population.
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    • President Larue's speech censored On Sunday 23.9.2018, President Larue gave a speech during the second September government discussions. The government discussions are public discussions where members of the national congress, Shffahkia's tetracameral legislature, discuss public of the direction of Shffahkia. The government discussions are usually ended by the Premier-Dirigeant's speech, however, due to recent political changes, the president of the union has been the one to finish these discussions.  The president set several goals to the government that differed from the political norm at the top of which would be ending Isolationism, opening Shffahkian society and moving the nation towards a more liberal direction. According to the Shffahkian council (Conseil Sfakien) these points were against the principles of Collectivism, and therefore, had to be censored. Despite receiving applause and praise throughout the country, Larue's speech has been censored an almost all public formats.  The reason why Larue's speech was censored despite her holding the final say on almost all matters of state is the Shffahkian Council. The Shffahkian Council is responsible for the overseeing of the implementation of  Collectivism in Shffahkia. The council has on multiple occasion shown dissatisfaction towards Larue and her new government and has also rejected many of her administration's attempts on reform. This face-off between the president and the council shows that the two have vastly different views on Collectivism. This difference can be explained by Larue's rapid rise to power which has left many members of the "old guard" unprepared. How ever change might be coming as and agreed-upon date has been set for the next Senate elections. Within the Larue Amendments, the Senate was granted to use the highest power in the country under the president. This means that if President Larue manages to fill the Senate with enough supporters to get a five to six vote passed, she can appoint new members to the Shffahkian Council which would give her control of two of the four chambers. The censorship directed towards Larue's supporters has revealed a divide within Shffahkia. With the absence of Nikolao Kondukanto who didn't allow political disagreement, Shffahkia is divided into those who believe in Larue's liberal interpretation of Collectivism and to those who support conservative Collectivism.
    • PNN HISTORY MADE SHORT  The History of Transargic Oil (TAO), The First Monopoly in PyeMcGowan Transargic Oil, Standard Amenities as it was called in the beginning, was founded by Ronald Jenkins in 1915 as a gold mining company in the gold rich province of Wendover. Jenkins was a privlidged man as he was born in 1870 into a rich family that owned many gold mines in the Wendover Gold Rush. He worked for his fathers company, Jenkins Mining, as a CFO until 1900 when he became a stock broker in Charleston, there he made upwards of 3 million Poggles, worth 10 Million today. He quit the stock market and married to Martha Jenkins in 1910. After he moved back to Wendover, just down the road from his parents house, he purchased 25 km² of land in Southern Wendover. From there with only half his budget he went on a spending spree hiring any able persons and every digging machine in sight! He spent two years digging, and he did find some gold, but not enough, he decided to dig all across his land and didn’t get very deep in enough time, causing a gigantic loss of over 5 million Poggles( Worth 15 million today)! Eventually, with help from his family, he got on track and dug in the same area before moving on. This was a massive success! He made 10 Million in his first year of digging(30 Million today) but gold and silver was losing its value, but Ronald met an old friend from the stock Exchange, his name was David Georgeson and he was making it big with oil. This inspired  Jenkins to sell his depleated land in Wendover and buy oil rich land in the northern provinces. From there in 1915 he founded Transargic Oil, and begun digging for oil. At its peak in 1924 TAO was producing 5 million barrels of oil a week which was too much for PyeMcGowan, so TAO started exporting across the Argic Sea and throughout mainland Argis. Over the years TAO became more powerful and started buying up all of the oil companies in PyeMcGowan, effectively becoming a monopoly. But in 1939 the Bank of PyeMcGowan’s Corporate regulation committee dismantled the organisation into many smaller groups. But Ronald kept shares in them and became very rich in his later years. Jenkins died in 1950, which was also the year that communists took control of PyeMcGowan and started executing all wealthy businessmen. As his family, including his son, George Jenkins and daughter Andrea Jenkins, moved to the Leverne Islands, along with over 2 million residents including the royal family, they took with them a sum of over 14 Billion Poggles! The expanded Family moved back to PyeMcGowan in 1963 after the communist government was overthrown. Now members of the Jenkins Family are in top positions across the world including Board members of United Corp Edward Jenkins and Simon Jenkins. Of course the Jenkins were a charitable bunch as they founded the Jenkins International Foundation, which funds orphanages and refugee housing across the world. Related Photos: The Jenkins Household in Northern Wendover, which is still owned by the Jenkins Family. Ronald Jenkins in 1946 The oil industry is still booming in the northern Provinces
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    • update on RL used in Ahrana   Sigrid Anastasian Anne Victoria Florence-Goring [Jennifer Lawrence] will announce her postion in Government after 5 October  
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