Government and Politics
The National Assembly is the supreme legislative body of Riadiya. The National Assembly is bicameral, consisting of the People's Assembly and the Revolutionary Assembly.
The People's Assembly is the section of the National Assembly directly elected by the people of Riadiya. Elections use first-past-the-post and are held every five years in districts of similar population, which the President has the responsibility of apportioning. All bills originate in the People's Assembly, but the President may, in practice, also propose bills when a special session is called. Bills are passed by a simple majority.
The Revolutionary Assembly is the section of the National Assembly appointed by the President for life terms, with former Presidents holding ex officio seats.
The Revolutionary Assembly has the power to veto legislation. Historically, the Revolutionary Assembly has had a broader purpose of revising bills passed by the People's Assembly, being an advisor to the People's Assembly through the process of creating legislation, and ensuring that legislation which passes adheres to the laws set forth in the Constitution and to the will of the people. While originally the Revolutionary Assembly was made up of high-profile revolutionaries from the Riadiyan Revolution, now it is generally made up of well-respected judges, scholars, and statesmen, many of whom have come out of retirement to take the position.
The President holds supreme executive authority as Riadiya's commander-in-chief. The President is also the chief diplomat, is responsible for organizing the census and apportioning the constituencies that elect the People's Assembly, can summon the National Assembly or either of its houses to a special session, and call referenda to amend the Constitution.
The President also holds some legislative power, with the de facto ability to propose bills and the power to veto bills which have passed the National Assembly
The Revolutionary Assembly acts primarily, in its judicial capacity, as Riadiya's constitutional court. The Revolutionary Assembly has the sole power to ensure adherence to the Constitution by the rest of the government, and so can nullify laws it deems unconstitutional or compel the government to fulfill its constitutional duties.
The Revolutionary Assembly also has original jurisdiction in all cases involving members of the People's Assembly or the President and has the sole power to impeach members of the National Assembly or the President.
Riadiya has a hybrid legal system, with characteristics deriving from both civil law and fiqh, and so it tends to bear a resemblance to common law in practice.
There is a tiered system of courts, with the Supreme Court as the highest court in Riadiya. The Supreme Court and other appellate courts are appointed with the approval of the National Assembly and the President, while courts of first instance are elected by local communities. Judges often come to decisions singlehandedly as courts use an inquisitorial system rather than an adversarial one, but appellate courts often consist of a panel of judges.